Mark Twain – anti-imperialisten

Mats Björkenfeldt

1896 blev William McKinley (1843–1901) USA:s president. Han omvaldes fyra år senare för att kort tid därefter mördas. McKinley kom att bedriva en imperialistisk utrikespolitik. Han startade krig mot Spanien och Kuba. Vid freden i Paris 1898 tillföll Puerto Rico och Filippinerna USA; Kuba ställdes under amerikansk jurisdiktion. Samma år annekterades ögruppen Hawaii. Amerikanska trupper deltog också militärt i Kina 1900.

Amerika hade glatt sig åt freden som varat sedan inbördeskrigets dagar, samtidigt som McKinleys kommande vicepresident Theodor Roosevelt sökte finna en lämplig fiende. “”Jag välkomnar nästan alla krig, för jag tror att detta land behöver ett”, skrev han 1895.

Två år senare fick han sitt krig. På Kuba pågick uppror mot den spanska kolonialmakten. Med stöd av den så kallade Monroe-doktrinen från 1823 ansåg sig presidenten ha legitima intressen på Kuba och att USA inte kunde stillatigande se på när spanjorerna inte ägnade sig åt “civiliserad krigföring men utrotning.”.  Presidenten skickade således den över 6 tusen ton tunga nybyggda kryssaren Maine in i Havannas hamn. Plötsligt hördes en påstådd bomb explodera och fartyget gick till botten. Presidenten förespråkade en “neutral intervention” och ett ultimatum skickades till Madrid, som förklarade USA krig. I freden i Paris 1898 erhöll USA kolonialstyre över Filippinerna, Puerto Rico och Guam, medan Kuba förvandlades till en nominellt självständig stat, i praktiken dock en amerikansk lydstat under ockupation. Bakgrunden till freden var denna:

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Russia’s position at the seventy-sixth session of the UN General Assembly, mid.ru

2.      We have consistently advocated the strengthening of the genuine multilateral framework of international relations and world economy based on the norms of international law, including the UN Charter, with an emphasis on the unconditional respect for the sovereignty of States and non-interference in their internal affairs. We deem unacceptable the attempts of Western States to replace the universally recognized international legal principles with the so-called “rules-based world order” elaborated behind the scenes.

4.     Preventing conflicts and addressing their consequences is our first priority. However, effective international assistance in this sphere, including from the UN, is only possible with the consent of the States concerned and in line with the UN Charter. This applies equally to good offices, preventive diplomacy and mediation, which should be conducted impartially and with respect for the sovereignty of States. It is crucial that there should be no universal “conflict indicators”: each situation calls for a delicate and unbiased approach as well as a thorough search for a tailored solution that would take into account the roots and history of the conflict.

32.    The UNSC sanctions, as one of the strongest instruments of ‘targeted action’ to tackle threats to international peace and security, should not be abused. As a measure of last resort in the area of conflict resolution, they cannot be applied without first taking into account the full range of their possible humanitarian, social and economic and human rights consequences. It is unacceptable to use them as a means of unfair competition and pressure on “undesirable regimes”. The functions of the existing institution of the Ombudsperson should be expanded to protect the interests of all the entities on the Security Council sanctions list. It is unacceptable to supplement Security Council sanctions with unilateral restrictions, especially those of an extraterritorial nature. Läs dokumentet

Försvarspolitisk skandal!

Per Blomquist, överste av första graden och ledamot av Kungl. Krigsvetenskapsakademien

Krigshetsarna Hultqvist/Bydén, som vill satsa huvuddelen av de 87 försvarsmiljarderna på anfallsstrid mot vår övermäktige granne i öster, bör bytas ut. Unga fackmän som kan och förstår värdet av en äkta försvarsstrid bör snarast ta över. Det är freden och friheten som ska försvaras.

ÖB Bydén spelade utrikesminister vid Krigsvetenskapsakademiens högtidssammankomst den 12 november 2016 med naiva uttalanden. Han ansåg sig till exempel veta att Ryssland inte är ”tillfreds med nuvarande världsordning”. (KKrVA:s Handlingar och Tidskrift 4:2016)

Debatt undviker Hultqvist/Bydén, exempelvis mot Raimo Jakola som 1974–1994 genomförde militärstrategiska hotprognoser och framtidsinriktade strukturstudier för försvaret. Med sin erfarenhet har han utmanat till debatt med följande korta inlägg:

”I nordvästra Ryssland finns idag tre fjärrstridsenheter med precisionsstyrda och målsökande robotar med konventionella och kärnstridsspetsar som i norra Sverige når mål ner till linjen Skellefteå-Sorsele och i södra Sverige (från Kaliningrad) upp till linjen Halmstad- Stockholm. Målen nås beroende på typ av robot fem till trettio minuter efter uppskjutning från ryskt territorium.

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Sommarrepris:Östen Undén – Sveriges längsta utrikesminister, Sven Hirdman

Vi återpublicerar här ett inlägg från 30 november 2016

Karriär

 Östen Undén föddes 1886 och dog 1974. Han hade en enastående karriär:

Statsråd i fyra svenska regeringar, utrikesminister i 19 år, i centrum för svensk utrikespolitik i 45 år, framstående jurist, rektor för Uppsala universitet och universitetskansler.

Vid 31 års ålder professor i civilrätt och konsult i Edén–Brantings regering 1917.

Utrikesminister 1924–1926 i Brantings tredje regering.

Ordförande i riksdagens utrikesutskott 1937–1945.

Utrikesminister i Per Albin Hanssons och Erlanders regeringar 1945–1962.

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Økt russisk aktivitet langs norskekysten, tv2.no

Etterretningsinformasjon som TV 2 har fått tilgang til, viser at det er registrert rundt ti fartøy i Norges nærområder for tiden.

Av disse er fire undervannsbåter. Tre av disse igjen er reaktordrevne og en er konvensjonell. Den ene ubåten er av Dolgorukiy-klassen som er topp moderne og en av de nyeste  farkostene som russerne har. De moderne marinefartøyene fra Nordflåten er på vei tilbake til basene på Kola etter feiring av Marinens Dag i St. Petersburg 25. juli.

Historisk sett de siste tre – fire årene har man brukt denne anledningen til å øve utenfor den norske kysten. […]

At den russiske nordflåten viser seg fram med stadig større styrker er blitt mer og mer vanlig utenfor norskekysten.

– De driver blant annet strategisk signalering og forsvarssjefen var ute for noen år siden og kommenterte at slik han så situasjonen nå, så var Norge omringet av russiske marinestyrker, sier Odlo. Läs artikel

The Russian embassy responds to the Swedish foreign minister Ann Linde that want to overthrowe Putin, newsvoice.se

After two Russian comedians managed to get Sweden’s Foreign Minister Ann Linde to reveal that she is open to supporting secret sanctions against Russia, which means ousting Putin, the Foreign Ministry replied that “foreign policy relations have not been affected”. Now the Russian embassy replies that they do not agree with the Foreign Ministry at all. […]

We would like the Foreign Ministry’s press release writers to notice that their profound conclusion that «the foreign policy relations have thereby not been affected» (i.e. the Swedish-Russian relations) is incorrect.

Such proposals in support of a so-called “opposition” constitute, gracious gentlemen, a clear example of an intervention in the internal affairs of neighboring Russia and can not be considered in any other way than as directly detrimental to our bilateral relations.” Läs artikel

 

Den finska och svenska arméns gemensamma planeringsövning främjar samverkan, maavoimat.fi

Den finska och svenska armén övar planering av operationer och samverkan på arménivå inom Övre Lapplands område under tiden 16 – 20.8.2021. Målsättningen för övningen är att utveckla samverkan mellan den finska och svenska armén och göra samarbetet med svenskarna ännu smidigare än tidigare.

Under övningen ökar man finländarnas och svenskarnas ömsesidiga kunskaper om varandras styrkor, materiel, utrustning samt taktiska tänkande. Vidare planerar man den framtida samverkan och utvecklandet av samarbetet i fortsättningen. Läs pressmeddelande

US, China and Russia Plan Joint Research in Order to Regulate Arctic Fishing, highnorthnews.com

USA, China, Japan, and Russia are among the countries planning to conduct joint research on fishing in the Arctic Ocean in an effort to establish international rules. […]

Representatives from nine countries and the European Union are planning to meet in South Korea early next year to discuss fishing quotas based on similar treaties covering other regions, according to Nikkei.

Starting with the quotas, which could take effect as early as 2022, the group intends to gradually expand guidelines to enforce sustainable fishing. […]

The members of the research project, which also include Canada, Denmark, Norway, Iceland and South Korea, will discuss setting up a body to manage resources to enable monitoring for unchecked fishing and settle fishing disputes. The goal is to establish such international rules by 2023-2024. Läs artikel

Civil servant who lost MoD files at a bus stop was to be UK’s ambassador to Nato, theguardian.com

The senior civil servant who misplaced 50 pages of classified Ministry of Defence documents, which were later found at a bus stop in Kent, was being lined up to be appointed the UK’s ambassador to Nato at the time of the incident, according to two government sources.

The elevation of Angus Lapsley is now understood to be unlikely but not definitely ruled out in light of the unfortunate episode, in which the mislaid paperwork – some of which was marked secret – discussed sensitive deployments in Afghanistan and the Black Sea. […]

It became public because the paperwork was handed to the BBC at the end of June, prompting the broadcaster to put together a report detailing some of its contents. […]

The abandoned papers also revealed that there were two possible routes under consideration for the HMS Defender in its recent voyage across the Black Sea, one briefly passing through the territorial waters of Russian-occupied Crimea and the other sailing many miles away.

It confirmed that the decision to sail the warship close to Crimea and provoke Russia was a deliberate choice by the UK. Läs artikel

Läs också kommentar tidigare på den här sajten om Sveriges deltagande i övningen i Svarta havet.

Solzhenitsyn and The Problem of Crimea, usrussiaaccord.org

“If there were a moral to be drawn from the Crimean War which might apply to the present it would be this: in a war between Russia and the West, it is the powers which keep out who will the be the real gainers…” AJP Taylor, February 1951

The issue of Crimea has been back in the news of late, but if Professor Taylor’s insight is anything to go by, perhaps it never really went away […]

As Solzhenitsyn makes clear, the US has been trying to pull not only Crimea but the Russian naval port city Sevastopol into the West’s sphere of influence for the past thirty years. Solzhenitsyn notes that the American ambassador to Ukraine, an ethnic Ukrainian by the name of Roman Popadiuck…

…had the gall to declare that Sevastopol rightly belongs to Ukraine. Based on what historical erudition or relying on what legal foundations did he pronounce this learned judgement?—he failed to clarify. Why should he, when the State Department immediately supported his opinion? This—regarding Sevastopol, which even the madcap Khrushchev did not conceive of “granting” to Ukraine, for  it was excluded from the Crimea as a city under Moscow’s direct administrative supervision. (May one ask: what business is it of the State Department to comment on Sevastopol at all?) 

All of this is simply to point out that the issues surrounding the status of Crimea are far more complicated than as usually presented in the American press. Indeed, the best course of action with regard to Crimea may well be that as suggested by AJP Taylor some seventy years ago. Läs artikel

Försvarsmakten hotar den svenska demokratin, doncollin.weebly.com

Sven-Olof Yrjö Collin

Igår, i storslagna annonser, på första sidan i Svenska Dagbladet, och därför dyra annonser, skriver Försvarsmakten att de ”försvarar mänskliga rättigheter, allas lika värde och vår rätt att leva som vi själva väljer.”

Notera flaggan på bilden. Det är inte den svenska flaggan, den som representerar den landmassa som det är Försvarsmaktens uppgift att försvara, utan en politisk orientering avseende sexuellt likaberättigande.

Under vanliga tider skulle en sådan annons betraktas som ett angrepp på den svenska demokratin och Överbefälhavaren hade omedelbart blivit avskedad.

Ty, som Försvarsmakten själv skriver på sin hemsida: ”Försvarsmaktens yttersta uppgift är att bevara landets frihet och skydda vår rätt att själva välja hur vi ska leva.”

Försvarsmakten skall således inte stå bakom något annat värde än vår frihet att själva bestämma. Detta bestämmande görs ytterst genom den representativa demokratin och genom den mer folkliga demokratin, där yttrandefrihet och föreningsfrihet är i centrum. Men notera, dessa friheter är inte Försvarsmaktens, ty de skall blott försvara vår frihet att bestämma dessa själv. Läs artikel

On American Diplomacy and the Disorderly Oscillation of World Orders, americandiplomacy.web.unc.edu

Chas W. Freeman, ambassador, former U.S. Assistant Secretary of Defense

[…] The United States not only ceased longstanding efforts to establish the rule of law in international affairs,[9] it began progressively to set aside major elements of international law it had helped establish. The casualties included but were not limited to:

  • The “Westphalian” principles of sovereignty that form the basis of the United Nations Charter were set aside as the U.S. launched a series of wars and so-called “humanitarian interventions” aimed at overthrowing sovereign foreign regimes.
  • Domestic American constitutional procedures and corresponding processes for the authorization of wars by the UN were annulled by the self-proclaimed war powers of U.S. presidents.
  • Previously forceful U.S. objections to secondary trade and financial sanctions against third countries were dropped in favor their profligate use in unilateral efforts to impose U.S. policies on allies, partners, and friends as well as adversaries.
  • The Geneva Conventions of 1949 and related protocols were eviscerated by innovative U.S. legal evasions, like those in Guantánamo, and expedient suspensions of international law, as in U.S. backing for Israeli occupation practices and territorial acquisitions, set the post-World War II rules aside.
  • The civil and human rights of individuals were violated by their bureaucratic designation as “enemies of the state” and their subjection to practices like “extraordinary rendition (official kidnapping) and “enhanced interrogation” (torture).

Thus, America’s “unipolar moment” unexpectedly facilitated a radical departure from the post-World War II order and replaced it with a level of global anomie and sociopathy not seen since the 18th century. The traditional aspirations of Americans for a higher standard of morality yielded to smirkingly cynical approval of lawless brutality to achieve desirable outcomes. Americans came to believe that, in foreign policy, might makes right and the ends justify the means. U.S. claims to exceptionalism rang increasingly hollow. […]

Instead of the UN Charter and related international laws, Washington now advocates what it calls the “rules-based international order.” This formulation has limited appeal internationally. To many it sounds like a desire by the United States to restore the basic elements of the fading “unipolar moment” by proclaiming rules, unilaterally imposing and enforcing them, and then deciding which of them, if any, it will apply to itself or its client states. References to the “rules-based order” are seen as part of a pretentious U.S. effort to isolate and cripple China, Russia, and their economies, while forcing a choice between them and the United States that all but a few nations seek desperately to avoid. Läs artikel