Europe’s Problems, Europe’s Choices, foreignpolicy.com

George F. Kennan

Publicerat 15 mars 1974.

Whatever the future state of a Europe which sees itself abandoned by the United States and intimidated to the point of helplessness by the Russians, it will not be “Finlandization.”

No one who has followed with even cas­ual attention the recent trend of discussion in Western circles of the future course of East-West relations and the defense of West­ern Europe can have failed to miss the many invocations of the spectre of a “Finlandiza­tion” of Western Europe, as something sure to follow on anyone of a number of devel­opments, real or imagined, to which the in­vokers are opposed. Sometimes it is the con­tinued pursuit of Willy Brandt’s Ostpolitik which is seen as leading to the dread condi­tion; on other occasions it is the withdrawal of American forces from Germany, as pro­posed by Senator Mansfield; occasionally it is the predicted betrayal of Western Europe by the United States and the Brandt govern­ment at a European security conference. It is, in short, a spectre which may be invoked, and is, to suggest the consequences of any major departure from the Adenauer-Dulles policies of an earlier epoch — of any effort, in other words, to mitigate the greatest dangers and asperities of the cold war. Läs artikel